In November, Bartlett filed an application with the Montgomery County (Iowa) District Court for confirmation of the arbitration. Sheeder argued that the arbitration provisions in the written confirmations were not enforceable because they were not included in the initial oral agreements. The district court denied Bartlett’s application and concluded there was “no enforceable agreement between the parties to arbitrate” even though the parties had signed the agreements containing those arbitration provisions. Bartlett filed an appeal, and both the NGFA and the Agribusiness Association of Iowa were permitted to join in the appeal as amicus curiae. At stake was not only enforcement of the arbitration provision, but also the district court’s decision to discount how oral agreements for the purchase of grain are widely and commonly confirmed in writing, which had significant potential implications for the trade.